Ultrasonic Biophysical Measurements in the Normal Human Fetus for Optimal Design of the Monolithic
Evgueni Fayn, MD, Howard A. Chou, PhD, DaeGyun Park, MD, PhD, Daniel H. Zavitz, MSc, Bettina F. Cuneo, MD, Vicki L. Mahan, MD, Mehmet GuleÃ§yuz, MD, Letitia Curran, RDMS, David Lipson, PhD,
Edmond W. Quillen, Jr., PhD, Boris M. Petrikovsky, MD, PhD, and Marc Ovadia, MD
The failures of current medical therapeutics for the management of fetal complete atrioventricular
block with hydrops fetalis, as well as the increasing number of fetuses at risk for acute bradycardia during interventional procedures and fetal surgeries, have inspired the author of this article to develop a monolithic pacemaker designed for closed-thorax, closed-uterus, closedâ€“maternal abdomen over-the-wire deployment under ultrasound guidance.